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|Stow's Survay was first published in 1598. More text was added in the third edition of 1618 and in the fourth edition of 1633. All passages reproduced here from descriptions of Southwark are taken from the 1618 edition, except for the two sections new in the 1633 edition. The passages include all references to the parish of St Saviour, along with accompanying references to the parishes of St Olave, St George, St Thomas, and to adjoining parts of Bermondsey, Lambeth, and Newington Butts. Italic fonts used for proper nouns and English or Latin verse in the original are presented here as Roman. U/u and V/v are normalized to modern use, except that initial 'v' is retained in Latin passages. Supplied letters are noted in italics. Left and right marginalia do not always align perfectly with the text to which they refer.|
|Bridge Ward without.||
Having treated of Wards in London, on the North side the Thames (in number five and twentie) I am now to crosse over the said River, into the Borough of Southwarke, which is also a Ward of London without the walls, on the South side thereof, as is Portsoken on the East, and Faringdon extra on the West.
|Ex Humf. Dyson.||
But before I come to the particular description of this Ward, it will not be impertinent to declare, when, and by what meanes the Borough of Southwark now called Bridge Ward without, was made one of the sixe and the twentie Wards, belonging to the City of London; which was in this manner:
|How the Borough of Southwarke became at the first to be one of the 26. Wards of London.||
After the dissolution of the Monasteries, Abbeyes, Priories, and other religious Houses, in this Realme of England:
The Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of this City of London taking into their considerations, how commodious and
convenient it would be unto the Citie, to have the Borough of Southwarke annexed thereunto, and that the same Borough
was in the Kings hands wholly; they became humble suiters unto King Henry eight, and to the Lords of his Highnesse
Privie Councell, for the obtayning of the same. Which suit not being granted unto them; after the decease of King
Henry the eight, they renewed their suit unto his Sonne and next Successor, King Edward the sixt, and to the Lords
of his Privie Councell, for the obtayning of the same Borough.
At the length, after long suit, and much labour, it pleased King Edward the sixt, by his Letters Patents, sealed
with the great Seale of England, bearing date at Westminster the three and twentieth day Aprill, in the fourth yeere
of his Reigne, as well in consideration of the summe of six hundred fortie seven pound, two shillings, and a penny,
of lawfull Money of England, payd to his Highnesse use, by the Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London, as for
divers other considerations him thereunto moving; To give and graunt unto the said Maior and Comminaltie, and
Citizens of London, divers Messuages, Lands, and Tenements, lying in or neere the said Borough of Southwarke, in
the said Letters Patents particularly expressed, which were sometimes the lands of Charles, then late Duke of Suffolke,
and of whom King Henry the eight did buy and purchase the same.
But there was excepted out of the said Grant, and reserved unto the said King Edward the sixt, his Heires and successors, all that his Capitall Messuage, or Mansion House, called Southwarke Place, late of the said Duke of Suffolke, and all Gardens and Land to the same adioyning: And all that his Parke in Southwarke: And all that his Messuage, and all Edifices and Ground, called the Antilope there.
And the said King Edward the sixt did by his said Letters Patents give and grant to the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens, and their successors, all that his Lordship and Mannor of Southwarke, with all and singular the Rights, Members, and appurtenances thereof, in the said Countie of Surrey, then late belonging to the late Monastery of Bermondsey, in the same Countie: And also all that his Mannor and Borough of Southwarke, with all and singular the Rights, Members, and appurtenances thereof, in the said Countie of Surrey, then late parcell of the Possessions of the Archbishop and Archbishoprickes of Canturburie, Together with divers yeerly rents, issuing out of divers Messuages, or Tenements, in the said Letters Patents particularly expressed.
The Mint of Coynage in Southwarke.
|And also the said King Edward the sixt, by his said Letters Patents, as well for the above mentioned considerations, as also for the summe of five hundred Markes, payd to his use, by the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of the said Citie of London, did give and grant to the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of the said Citie, and to their successors, in and through the whole Borough and Towne of Southwarke, and in and through the whole Parishes of S. Saviors, S. Olaves, and S. George in Southwarke, and in and through the whole Parish, then late called S. Thomas Hospitall, and then called the Kings Hospitall in Southwark, and elsewhere wheresoever, in the Towne and Borough of Southwarke, and in Kentish street and Blackman street, in the Parish of Newington, All Wayffes, Estrayes, Treasure-trove, Goods and Chattels of Traytors, Felons, Fugitives, Out-lawes, Condemned persons, Convict persons, and Felons defamed, and of such as be put in Exigent of Outlawrie, Felons of themselves, and Deodands, and of such as refuse the Lawes of the Land: And all Goods disclaymed, found, or being within the said Borough, Towne, Parishes, and Precincts: And all manner of Escheats and Forfeitures.||The Kings Hospitall in Southwarke.|
|The power of the Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London, in Southwarke||
And that the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens, by themselves, or their Deputie, or Officer or Officers, should
have in the Towne, Borough, Parishes, and Precincts aforesaid, the Taste and Assize of Bread, Wine, Ale, and Beere, and of all other Victuals and things whatsoever, sold in the same Towne. And whatsoever should or might appertaine to the Office of the Clarke of the Market of his Majesties House-hold. And the correction and punishment of all persons there selling Bread, Wine, Beere, and Ale, and other Victuals; and of others there inhabiting, or using any Arts whatsoever. And all Forfeitures, Fines, and Amerciaments, to be forfeited to the King, or his Heires or Successors. And that they should have the execution of the Kings Writs, and of all other Writs, Commandements, Precepts, Extracts, and Warrants, with the returnes thereof, by such their Minister or Deputie as they should chuse.
|The Fayre to be kept in Southwarke.||
And that they should have, keepe, and hold there, every yeere, yeerely, one Fayre, to endure for three dayes,
viz. the seventh, eight, and ninth daies of September. And that during the said three dayes, they should hold
there, by their Minister or Deputie, from day to day, from houre to houre, and from time to time, all Actions,
Plaints, and Pleas of the Court of Pipowder, with all Summons, Attachments, Arrests, Issues, Fines, Redemptions,
Commodities, and other Rights whatsoever, to the Court of Pipowder by any meanes belonging. And also, that they
should have throughout the whole Precinct aforesaid, View of Franke-pledge, with all Summons, Attachments, Arrests,
Issues, Amerciaments, Fines, Redemptions, Profits, Commodities, and other things, which thereof to the King, his
Heires, or Successors, should appertaine.
|Felons in Southwarke committed to Newgate, in London.||
And also, that the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens, and their successors, by themselves, or by their Officers
or Deputies, may take and arrest in the Borough, Towne, Parish, and Precincts aforesaid, all Theeves, Felons, and
other Malefactors, and may carrie them to the Gaole of Newgate. And that the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens,
and their successors, should for ever have in the said Borough, Towne, Parishes, and Precincts, all such Liberties,
Priviledges, Franchises, Discharges, and Customes, which the
King or his heires should have had, if the said Borough had remayned in the Kings hands.
And also he granted to the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London, and to their successors, that they should
for ever hold and keepe, all manner of Pleas, Actions, Plaints, and personall Suites, and all manner of Causes, Matters,
Contracts, and Demands whatsoever, happening in the Precincts aforesaid, before the Maior and Aldermen of London, and
before the Sheriffes of London for the time being, or any of them, in the Guildhall and Hustings of the said Citie:
and the like Actions, Bills, Plaints, Proces, Arrests, Iudgements, Executions, and other things whatsoever, and the
same dayes and times, and in such like maner, as the like Pleas happening in the said Citie, before the Maior, Aldermen
and Sheriffes, or any of them, in the said Courts, or any of them, time out of minde, have been taken, holden,
prosecuted, or executed.
||Pleas, Actions, Plaints, and personal Suits.|
And that the Serieants at Mace, and other Officers of London, using to serve Proces, might from thenceforth, for ever,
serve and execute all manner of Proces in the said Borough, Towne, Parishes, and Precincts, concerning such Pleas and
executions of the same, as time out of mind hath been used in the Citie of London.
And that the Inhabitants of the same Borough, Parishes, and Precincts, for Causes and Matters there growing, may
implead or be impleaded in the said Citie, in forme aforesaid, and in the said Courts. And that if the Iuries
impanelled, and so moved to try such Issues, shall not appeare before the said Maior and Aldermen, or Sheriffes,
in the said Courts in London, they shall bee amerced in like manner, and forfeit such Issues, as Iuries in London,
making default of appearance, have used to forfeit. And that the Issues so forfeited, shall be to the use of the
Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London, and their successors for ever. And also, that the said Maior and
Comminaltie, and Citizens, and their successors for ever, should have the Cognizance of all manner||
Inhabitants of the borough to implead, and be impleaded in London.
|Issues taken upon Suites tried before the Maior and Aldermen.||
of Pleas, Plaints, and personall Actions, out of all the Kings Courts, before the King, or before any of his Iustices, for any thing happening in the said Borough, or Precincts, before the said Maior and Aldermen, and Sheriffs, or any of them, in the Courts of the said Citie. And that the Issues taken upon the said suits, shall be tryed in the said Courts, before the Maior and Aldermen, and Sheriffes, by men of the said Borough, as Issues in London are tryed.
|Two Coroners for the Borough.||
And that the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens, and their successors, should for ever chuse, according to the
Law, every yeere, or as often as they should thinke meet, two Coroners in the said Borough: And that the said
Coroners, and either of them so chosen, should in the Precincts aforesaid, have and use like authoritie, as any
other Coroners in England ought to have and execute: and that no other of the Kings Coroners should in any wise
presume to execute any thing belonging to the Office of a Coroner, in the Precincts aforesaid.
|The Maior of London Escheator in Southwarke, and Clarke of the Market there also.||
And that the Maior of London, for the time being, should be Escheator in the Precincts aforesaid, and have power to
direct Precepts to the Sheriffe of the Countie of Surrey for the time being, and to doe all other things, which to
the Office of Escheator in any of the Counties of England appertaineth: And that no other Escheator shall enter
there, or intermeddle with any thing belonging to the Office of Escheator: And that the Maior of London, for the
time being, shalbe the Kings Clarke of the Market within the Precincts aforesaid, and may doe all things there
appertaining to the Office of Clarke of the Market, and that the Clarke of the Market of the Kings household shall
not there intermeddle with any thing.
Toll, Tallage, Pieage, &c.
And that the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens, and their successors for ever, should have, hold, use, and
enjoy, in the Precincts aforesaid, as wel all the Liberties & Franchises aforesaid, as the Toll, Tallage, Picage,
and all other the said Kings Iurisdictions, Franchises, and Priviledges, which any Archbishop of Canturbury, Charles
Duke of Suffolke, or any the M. Brothers & Sisters of the then late Hospitall of S. Thomas
in Southwarke, or any Abbot of the then late Monastery of Saint Saviors of Bermondsey, neere Southwarke; or any Prior or Convent of the then late Priory of Saint Mary Overy, or any of them ever had, then had, or ought to have had in the premises, in any of the places aforesayd; or which the said King Edward the sixt then lately held and enioyed, or ought to have had and enioy, and in as ample manner as King Henry the 8. had and enioied, or ought to have had and enioy the same: So that none of the Kings Sheriffes, or any other of his Officers should intermeddle in any thing in the sayd Borough and Precincts aforesayd.
|The inhabitants to be within the governance and correction of the Maior, &c.||
And the said King Edward the sixt did by his said Letters Patents further grant, that all the Inhabitants of the
said Precincts should be within the ordinance, governance and correction of the Maior and Officers of London and
their Deputies, as the Citizens and Inhabitants of London ought to be, by reason of any Charter formerly granted
by any of the said Kings Progenitors, to the Maior, Comminaltie and Citizens of London. And that the said Maior,
Comminaltie and Citizens, and their Successors for ever should have, enjoy, and use such Lawes, Iurisdictions,
Liberties, Franchises and Priviledges whatsoever in the Borough, and Precincts aforesayd as fully and freely as
they then used, or ought to have used and enjoyed the same in London, by vertue of any grant to them made by any
of the said Kings Progenitors.
And that the Maior of London for the time being, and the Recorder of London for the time being, after they have borne
the Office of Maioraltie of London, should be Iustices of the Kings Peace in Southwarke, and the Precincts aforesaid
so long as they should stand Aldermen of the said City; and should in the said Borough and Precincts aforesaid doe
and execute all things which other Iustices of the Peace might do in the County of Surrey, according to the Lawes
and Statutes of England.
Iustices of London in the like Office in Southwarke.
|Market and Markets in Southwarke.||
And also, that the said Maior, Comminaltie and Citizens, and their Successors should have every weeke, on Munday,
Wednesday, Friday and Satterday in the said Borough and
Towne of Southwarke, one Market or Markets there to bee kept, and all things to Markets appertaining: All which Mannor, Lands, Tenements, Rents, Liberties, Priviledges, Franchises, and other the premises granted by the said Letters Patents, did extend to the cleere yeerely value of 35.li. 14.s. 4.d. And were granted to bee holden to the said Maior, Comminaltie and Citizens of London, and their Successors for ever, of the sayd King, his Heires and Successors, as of his Mannor of East Greenwitch, in the Countie of Kent, by Fealtie onely in Free Socage (and not in Capite) for all manner of services and demands whatsoever.
|Exceptions and reseruations to the King.||But there was excepted and reserved out of the said Grant, to the said King Edward the sixt, his Heires and Successors, all his Rights, Iurisdictions, Liberties and Franchises whatsoever, within the Walke, Circuit, and Precinct of his Capitall Messuage, Gardens, and Parke in Southwarke, and in all Gardens, Curtilages, and Lands, to the said Mansion House, Gardens, and Parke belonging.|
Also, there was excepted and reserved out of the said Graunt, the House, Messuage, or Lodging there, called the
Kings Bench, and the Gardens to the same belonging, so long as it should be used as a Prison for Prisoners, as it
was then used.
Also, there was excepted and reserved out of the said Graunt, the House, Messuage, or Lodging there, called the Marshalsey, and the Gardens to the same belonging, so long as it should be used as a Prison for Prisoners, as it was then used.
Also it was provided, that the said Letters Patents should not be prejudiciall to the Offices of the Great Master or Steward of the Kings Household, within the Borough and Precincts aforesaid, to be executed while the same Borough and Precincts should be within the Verge: Nor to Ioh. Gates, Knight, one of the Gentlemen of the Kings Privie Chamber, concerning any Lands, Tenements, Offices, Profits, Franchises, or Liberties to him granted during his life, by the said King Edward the sixt, or by his Father King Henry the eight.
About the space of a moneth after the said Borough of Southwarke was so granted by King Edward the sixt to the Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London, and that they by force of the said Letters Patents stood charged with the Ordering, Survey, and Government of the same Borough, and of all the Kings subjects inhabiting therein, and repayring thither: At a Court holden before Sir Rowland Hill, Knight, then Lord Maior of London, and the Aldermen of the same Citie, in the Guild-Hall of London, on Tuesday the eight and twentieth of May, in the said fourth yeere of the raigne of King Edward the sixt, the said Towne or Borough was named and called the Ward of Bridge Ward without: And Sir Iohn Ayliffe, Knight, Citizen and Barber-Surgeon of London, was then also named, elected, and chosen by the same Court, to be Alderman of the same Ward, albeit that before that time there neyther was any such Ward nor Alderman.
And it was then also ordered, That the said Sir Iohn Ayliffe, by that name of Alderman of Bridge Ward without, and all other that from thenceforth should be Alderman of the same Ward, should have the Rule, Survey, and Government, not onely of the Inhabitants of the said Towne and Borough of Southwarke, and other the Kings people repayring to the same, but also of all the Liberties, Franchises, and Priviledges within the said Towne and Borough, then formerly granted by the King and his Progenitors to the said Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London. And for the due execution of which Office, the said Sir Iohn Ayliffe was then presently sworne and admitted.
The ordering, suruey, and government of the Borough, &c.
The Ward of Bridge Ward without; and Sir Iohn Ayliffe first Alderman thereof.
Not long after, videlicet, at a Court of Common Councell, holden in the Guild-Hall of London, on the last day of Iuly,
in the said fourth yeere of the raigne of King Edward the sixt, and in the time of the Maioraltie of the said
Sir Rowland Hill, it was enacted, That besides the then ancient accustomed number of five and twentie Aldermen,
there should be one Alderman more elected, to have
the Rule, Charge, and Governance of the said Borough and Towne. And that foure discreet persons, or more, being Freemen of London, and dwelling within the said Cittie, or the Borough of Southwarke, or in other the Liberties of the said Citie, should from thenceforth, as often as the case should require, be from time to time nominated, appointed, and chosen by the Inhabitants of the said Borough for the time being, before the Lord Maior of London for the time being, sitting in the said Borough for that purpose, in such sort and order, as the Aldermen of London were in those dayes commonly elected.
Sir Iohn Ayliffe sworne and admitted in the Maioraltie of Sir Rowland Hill.
|Election of an Alderman by Scrutinie.||
And that the said Lord Maior for the time being should (at the next Court of Aldermen to be holden at the
Guild-Hall of the said Citie, next after such election) present the names and surnames of all such persons as
so should be named before him, and put in the said election. And that the said Lord Maior and Aldermen for the
time being, should of those foure persons, or mo, so presented, elect and chuse one, by way of Scrutinie, to
be an Alderman of the said Citie, and to have the peculiar Ordering, Rule, and Governance of the said Borough
and Towne of Southwarke, and of the Inhabitants thereof, and of all other the Kings liege people, repayring
to the same.
The Alderman of Bridge Ward without.
And that the said Alderman so especially elect and chosen, and from time to time, as the cause [=case?] should
require thenceforth, to be elect and chosen for the Survey and Government of the said Borough, and the
Inhabitants and other remayning in and to the same, should alwayes be named and called the Alderman of
Bridge Ward without, and by none other Name, for, or concerning that Office, or Roome, and should have
the Cure and Charge of the good Ordering and Government of the said Borough and Towne of Southwarke, and
of the Inhabitants and People of and in the same, and of none other Place within the said Citie, by reason
or colour of the said Roome, as long as he should remaine and stand Alderman of the said Ward, but as the
residue of the said Aldermen of the said Citie be commonly char-
ged: And therein to doe and use himselfe, as other Aldermen within the Liberties of the said Citie were accustomed and used to doe, in as much as the Lawes and Statutes of this Realme would permit and suffer.
Yet neverthelesse it was prouided, and by the said Common Councell further ordained and enacted, That the said
Sir Iohn Ayliffe, Knight, should then be Alderman of the said Ward: And that as well the same Sir Iohn Ayliffe,
as also all and every person and persons that thenceforth should fortune to be Alderman of the same Ward, should
have and enjoy like prerogative, libertie, and benefit, to change and remove from the same Ward, and to accept
and take at his and their free will and pleasure any such other Ward or Wards within the said Citie, as it
should fortune him, or them, or any of them, to be thenceforth duely elect and chosen unto by the Inhabitants
of the same other Ward, or Wards, or any of them, in like manner and forme, as the other Aldermen of the said
Citie lawfully might, and commonly use to doe: Any thing in the said recited Act to the contrary in any wise
Neverthelesse, at a Court of Aldermen holden on Tuesday, the second day of September, in the sayd fourth yeere of the reigne of king Edward the sixt, and in the time of the Maioraltie of the said Sir Rowland Hill, it was ordered, That the Aldermen of Bridge Ward without, for the time being, should stand and remaine Alderman of the same Ward three whole yeeres next after his election, before hee should bee permitted to be removed to the Governance of any other Ward: Notwithstanding any former Law, Usage, or Custome.
The Alderman to change from that Ward, as occasion serued.
|Another Order for electing the Alderman of Bridge Ward without, in the time of King Philip and Queene Mary.||
But afterwards it seemeth, upon better advice, that another Order should be taken in the election of the
Alderman of the same Ward: For at a Common Councell holden in the Guild-Hall in London, on the sixteenth
day of Iune, in the fourth and fift yeeres of King Philip and Queene Mary, and in the time of the Maioraltie
of Sir Thomas Curtis, Knight, the said former Act, made on the last day of Iuly, in the fourth
yeere of King Edward the sixt, for so much thereof as did concerne the forme and order of the election of the Alderman of the same Ward of Bridge Ward without, was utterly repealed. And then it was enacted, That from thenceforth the Alderman of the same Ward should alwaies, at the time of vacation, or lacke of an Alderman thereof, be elected and chosen by the Lord Maior and Aldermen of London, for the time being, at a full Court of Aldermen, by them to be holden in the Inner Chamber of the Guild-Hall of the same Citie, in this manner, videlicet, That the Lord Maior and Aldermen should at their said full Court, amongst themselves, nominate foure discreet and meete Citizens, being Freemen of London, either resiant within the said Borough, or in London, or the Liberties thereof, to be put in election of Alderman of that Ward. And of the said foure persons so nominated, the said Lord Maior and Aldermen should by Scrutinie, according to their accustomed manner, elect one to be Alderman of the same Ward: Which Alderman, so by them elected and sworne, should use and behave himselfe in all things, as by the residue of the former Act of Common Councell, made the last day of Iuly, in the fourth yeere of King Edward the sixt, was ordained and appointed.
|The Alderman of Bridge Ward without to continue so for the space of three years, without remouing.|
Thus having declared, by what means and at what time the said Borough of Southwarke was made and named one
of the sixe and twentie Wards, now belonging to the Citie of London; I intend to proceed to the description
of the severall particular places of the same Ward, and likewise of such Monuments of Antiquitie, as are to
bee found therein.
This Borough being in the Countie of Surrey, consisteth of divers streetes, waies, and winding lanes, all full of buildings inhabited: and first, to begin at the West part thereof, over-against the West Suburbe of the Citie.
On the banke of the River Thames, there is now a continuall building of Tenements, about halfe a mile in length to the Bridge.
South a continuall street called Long Southwarke, builded on both sides with divers Lanes and Alleyes up to St. Georges Church, and beyond it thorow Blackman street, towards Newtowne (or Newington) the liberties of which Borough extend almost to the Parish Church of Newtowne aforesaid, distant one mile from London bridge, and also Southwest a continuall building, almost to Lambith more than one mile from the said Bridge.
Then from the Bridge along by the Thames Eastward, is Saint Olaves streete, having continuall building on both
the sides, with Lanes and Alleyes up to Battle bridge, to Horse-downe, and towards Rother-hith: also some good
halfe mile in length from London bridge.
So that I account the whole continuall buildings on the Banke of the said River, from the West towards the East, to be more than a large mile in length.
Saint Olaues streete.
Then have yee from the entring towards the said Horse-downe, one other continuall streete, called Barmondes eye
streete, which stretcheth South, likewise furnished with buildings on both sides, almost halfe a mile in length,
up to the late dissolved Monastery of Saint Saviour, called Bermondsey.
And from thence is one long lane (so called of the length) turning West to Saint Georges Church afore-named. Out of the which lane mentioned Long lane, breaketh one other street towards the South and by East, and this is called Kentish street, for that it is the way leading into that Country: and so have you the bounds of this Borough.
|The Antiquities most notable in this Borough are these: first, for Ecclesiasticall, there was Bermondsey, an Abbey of blacke Monkes, Saint Mary Overies, a Priory of Canons Regular, Saint Thomas, a Colledge or Hospitall for the poore, and the Loke [for Lock], a Lazar-house in Kentstreete. Parish Churches there have been sixe, whereof five doe remaine, (vz.) Saint Mary Magdalen, in the Priory of Saint Mary Overy: now the same Saint Mary Overy is the Parish Church for||An Abbey. A Priory. A Colledge & Hospitall. A Lazar house. Parish Churches.|
the said Mary Magdalen, and for Saint Margaret on the Hill, and is called St. Saviour.
Saint Margaret on the Hill being put downe, is now a Court for Iustice. Saint Thomas in the Hospitall serveth for a Parish Church, as afore. Saint George, a Parish Church, as before it did: So doth Saint Olave, and Saint Mary Magdalen, by the Abby of Bermondsey.
There be also these five Prisons, or Gaoles.
The Clinke, on the Banke.Houses most notable, be these.
The Bishop of Winchesters House.
Now to returne to the West Banke: there were two Beare-Gardens, the Old and New, Places wherein were kept
Beares, Bulls, and other Beasts, to be bayted: As also Mastives, in severall kenels, nourished to bayte them.
These Beares, and other Beasts, are there bayted in plots of ground, scaffolded about, for the Beholders to stand safe.
Next, on this Banke, was sometime the Bordello, or Stewes, a place so called, of certaine Stew-houses priviledged there, for the repaire of incontinent men to the like women; of the which Priviledge, I have read thus:
In a Parliament holden at Westminster the eight of Henry the second, it was ordayned by the Commons, and confirmed by the King and Lords, That divers Constitutions for ever should be kept within that Lordship, or Franchise, according to the old Customes, that had beene there used time out of minde: Amongst the which, these following were some: viz.
Liber Manuscript. The Stewes on the Bankeside.
That no Stew-holder, or his wife, should let or stay any single woman to goe and come freely at all times,
when they listed.
No Stew-holder to keepe any woman to boord, but she to boord abroad at her pleasure.
To take no more for the womans chamber in the Weeke, than foureteene pence.
Not to keepe open his doores upon the Holy-dayes.
Not to keepe any single woman in his house on the Holy-dayes, but the Bayliffe to see them
voyded out of the Lordship.
No single woman to bee kept against her will, that would leave her sinne.
No Stew-holder receive any woman of Religion, or any mans wife.
No single woman to take mony to lye with any man, except shee lye with him all night, till the morrow.
No man to be drawne or enticed into any Stew-house.
The Constables, Bayliffe, and others, every weeke to search every Stew-house.
No Stew-holder to keepe any woman, that hath the perillous infirmity of Burning; nor to sell
Bread, Ale, Flesh, Fish, Wood, Coale, or any Victuals, &c.
These and many more Orders were to be observed, upon great paine and punishment.
Liber S. Mary Eborum. English people disdayned to be Bawds. Froes of Flaunders were women for that purpose. Robert Fabian. Stewhouses put downe by H. the 7. for a time.
Signes on the Stewhouses.
Singlewomen forbidden rightes of the Church.
I have also seene divers Patents of confirmation, namely, one dated 1345. the nineteenth of Edward the 3. Also I finde, that in the fourth of Richard the second, these Stew houses belonging to William Walworth, then Maior of London, were farmed by Froes of Flaunders, and spoyled by Walter Tighler, and other Rebels of Kent: notwithstanding, I finde that ordinances for the same place, and houses, were againe confirmed in the raigne of Henry the sixt, and to be continued as before. Also Robert Fabian writeth, that in the yeere 1506. the one and twentieth of Henry the seventh, the said Stewhouses in Southwarke were (for a season) inhabited, and the dores closed up: but it was not long (saith he) ere the houses there were set open againe, so many as were permitted, for (as it was said) whereas before were eighteene houses, from thenceforth were appointed to bee used but twelve onely. These allowed Stewhouses had signes on their fronts, towards the Thames, not hanged out, but painted on the walles, as a Boares head, the Crosse keyes, the Gunne, the Castle, the Crane, the Cardinals Hat, the Bell, the Swanne, &c. I have heard ancient men of good credit report, that these single women were forbidden the rights of the Church, so long as they continued that sinfull life, and were excluded from Christian buriall, if they were not reconciled before their death. And therefore there was a plot of ground, called the Single womens Churchyard, appointed for them, farre from the Parish Church.
|Stewhouses put downe.||
In the yeere of Christ, a thousand five hundred forty sixe, the seven and thirtieth of Henry the eight, this
row of Stewes in Southwarke was put downe by the Kings commandement, which was proclaimed by sound of Trumpet
no more to be priviledged, and used as a common Brothel; but the inhabitants of the same to keepe good and honest
rule, as in other places of this Realme, &c.
Then next is the Clinke, a Gaole or Prison for the Trespassers in those parts, namely, in old time for such
as should brabble, fray, or breake the peace on the said banke, or in
the Brothell houses, they were by the inhabitants there about apprehended and committed to this Gaole, where they were straightly imprisoned.
Next, is the Bishop of Winchesters house, or lodging when he commeth to this City: which house was first builded
by William Gifford, Bishop of Winchester, about the yeere one thousand, one hundred and seven, the seventh of
Henry the first, upon a plot of ground pertaining to the Prior of Bermondsey, as appeareth by a writ directed
unto the Barons of the Exchequer, in the yeere 1366. the one and fortieth of Edward the third (the Bishops
Sea being void) for eight pound due to the Monkes of Bermondsey, for the Bishop of Winchesters lodging in
Southwarke. This is a very faire house well repayred, and hath a large Wharfe, and a landing place,
called the Bishop of Winchesters staires.
Adjoyning to this on the South side thereof, is the Bishop of Rochesters Inne or lodging, by whome first
erected I do not now remember me to have read, but well I wot, the same of long time hath not beene frequented
by any Bishop, and lyeth ruinous for lacke of reparations. The Abbot of Naverley had a house there.
Saint Mary Oueries a Priory, and now a Parish Church
East from the Bishop of Winchesters house, directly over-against it standeth a faire Church, called Saint
Mary over the Rie, or Overy, that is, over the water. This Church, or some other in place thereof, was
(of old time long before the Conquest) an house of Sisters, founded by a mayden, named Mary, unto the which
house and Sisters she left (as was left to her by her Parents) the over-sight and profites of a Crosse Ferrie,
or traverse Ferrie over the Thames, there kept before that any Bridge was builded. This house of
Sisters was after by Swithen a noble Lady, converted unto a Colledge of Priests, who in place of the Ferrie,
builded a Bridge of Timber, and from time to time kept the same in good reparations; but lastly the same
Bridge was builded of Stone, and then in the yeere 1106. was this Church againe founded for Canons
Regular, by William Pont de le Arch, and William Dauncy, Knights Normans:
|Lib. Rufen. Liber Bermondsey.||
[p.784 (error for 774)]
William Gifford, Bishop of Winchester, was a good Benefactor also, for he (as some have noted) builded the body of that Church, in the yeere one thousand, one hundred and sixe, the seventh of Henry the first.
The Canons first entred the said Church, then Algodus was the first Prior.
King Henry the first, by his Charter gave them the Church of Saint Margaret in Southwarke.
King Stephen confirmeth the gift of King Henry, and also gave the Stone house, which was William de Ponte le Arche, by Downegate.
|S. Thomas Hospitall.||This Priory was burned about the yeere 1207 wherefore the Canons did found an Hospitall neere unto their Priory, where they celebrated untill the Priory was repayred: which Hospitall was after (by consent of Peter de la Roch, Bishop of Winchester) removed into the land of Anicius, Archdeacon of Surrey, in the yeere 1228. a place where the water was more plentifull, and the ayre more wholsome, and was dedicated to Saint Thomas.|
Parish Church of Saint Mary Magdalen.
This Peter de Rupibus, or de la Roch, founded a large Chappell of Saint Mary Magdalen, in the said Church of
Saint Mary Overy, which Chappell was afterward appointed to be the Parish Church, for the inhabitants neere adioyning.
This Church was againe newly builded in the raigne of Richard the second and King Henry the fourth.
Iohn Gower was no Knight, neither had he any Garland of Ivie and Roses, but a Chaplet of foure Roses onely.
Iohn Gower, Esquire, a famous Poet, was then an espetiall Benefactor to that worke, and was there buried on the
North side of the said Church, in the Chappell of Saint Iohn, where he founded a Chauntry, he lyeth under a
Tombe of stone, with his Image also of stone over him. The haire of his head aburne, long to his shoulders,
but curling up, and a small forked beard; on his head a Chaplet, like a coronet of foure Roses, an habite of
Purple, damasked downe to his feete, a Collar of Esses of gold about his necke, under his feete the likenesse
of three Bookes, which hee compiled. The first, named Speculum Meditantis, written in French: The second,
Vox Clamantis, penned in Latine: The third, Confes
[p.785 (error for 775)]
sio Amantis, written in English, and this last is printed. Vox clamantis, with his Cronica Tripartita, and other both in Latine and French, never printed, I have and doe possesse, but Speculum Meditantis, I never saw, though heard thereof to bee in Kent; Beside, on the Wall where he lyeth, there was painted three Virgins crowned, one of the which was named Charity, holding this device:
En toy qui es Fitz de Dieu le Pere,The second writing Mercy, with this device:
O bone Iesu fait ta mercy,The third writing Pitty, with this device:
Pour ta pite Iesu regarde,
His Armes, in a Field Argent, on a Cheveron Azure, three Leopards heads Gold, their tongues Gules, 2. Angels
Supporters; on the Creast a Talbot. His Epitaph:
Armigeri Sculeum [=Scutum] nihil a modo fert sibi tutum,
The roofe of the middle waste [=west] Ile fell downe in the yeere 1469. This Priory was
surrendered to Henry the eight, the one and thirtieth of his raigne, the seven and twentieth of October,
the yeere of Christ 1539. valued at sixe hundred, twentie foure li. sixe s. sixe d. by
|About Christmas next following, the Church of the said Priory was purchased of the King by the inhabitants of the Borough. Doctor Stephen Gardener, Bishop of Winchester, putting to his helping hand, they made thereof a Parish Church for the Parish Church of S. Mary Magdalen, on the South side of the said Quire, out of Saint Margaret on the hill, which were made one Parish of Saint Saviour.||Priory of S. Mary Ouery made a Parish Church.|
[p.786 (error for 776)]
There be Monuments in this Church of Robert Liliard, or Hilliard, Esquire, Margaret, Daughter to the Lady Audley, wife to Sir Thomas Audley, William Grevill, Esquire, and Margaret his wife, one of the heires of William Spershut, Esquire, Dame Katherine, wife to Iohn Stoke, Alderman, Robert Mirfin, Esquire, William Undall, Esquire, Lord Ospay Ferar, Sir George Brewes, Knight, Iohn Browne, Lady Brandon, wife to Sir Thomas Brandon, William, Lord Scales, William, Earle Warren, Dame Maude, wife to Sir Iohn Peach. Lewknor, Dame Margaret Elrington, one of the heires of Sir Thomas Elrington, Iohn Bowden, Esquire, Robert Saint Magil, Iohn Standhurst, Iohn Gower, Iohn Duncell, Merchant-Taylor, 1516. Iohn Sturton, Esquire, Robert Rouse, Thomas Tong, first Norrey, and after Clarenciaulx, King of Armes. William Wickham, translated from the Sea of Lincolne, to the Bishopricke of Winchester, in the Moneth of March 1595. deceased the 11. of Iune next following, and was buried heere.
|A very faire Tombe in the North Ile of the Church.||
Thomas Cure, Esquire, Sadler to King Edward the sixt, Queene Mary and Queene Elizabeth, deceased the
24. day of May. 1598.
Hic iacet Ioannes Gower, Armiger, Anglorum Poeta celeberrimus, ac huic sacro AEdificio benefactor insignis, vixit temporibus Ed. 3. & Rich. 3.
Noviter constructum impensis
|A faire Tombe in the North wall of the Quire.||
Epicedion Thomae Cure, Southwarchiensis Armigeri.
Elizabetha tibi Princeps servivit Equorum.
Dum vixit tribui senibus curavit alendis,
An Epitaph upon John Trehearne, Gentleman Porter to King James the first.
Had Kings a power to lend their Subjects breath,
|A very faire Monument close by the other.|
Peter Humble Gent. dedicates this
to the pious memorie of Richard Humble Alderman of London, and
Margaret his first wife: daughter to Iohn Pierson of Nathing, in the Countie of Essex, Gent. By whom he
had issue two sonnes, Iohn, who died young, and the abovenamed Peter, now living. Also foure daughters,
Katharine, Weltham, Margaret, and Elizabeth, who survived the other three, and was interred the same day with
her Father, being the 30. of Aprill 1616. Richard left Isabel his second wife, widow, who was the
daughter of Robert Kitchinman, of Hemsley, in the Countie of Yorke, Gentleman, bequeathing to the poore of this
Parish 5. pound, 4. shillings yeerely, for ever, out of a Tenement adioyning to the Southside of the
three Crownes gate in Southwarke.
||A very faire Tombe in the Chancell.|
Gulielmus Wickham, translat. a sede Lincoln. & mense Martij, 1595. existens Episcopus
Winton. Obijt eleven. Iunij, prox. sequent. Reliquit uxorem laudatiss. quae
sepelit in Awkenberie, Com. Hunt.
Doctrina Antistes praestans & moribus aequis,
|A very faire Stone by the Communion Table.|
[p.788 (error for 778)]
Non parcus, iusti neglectus honore sepulchri,
The Monument of Bishop Andrewes is in a Chappell at the East end of the Church, and his body lyeth within the Monument.
|This Monument standeth in the South Ile.|
There is a Monument
of Iohn Bingham, Esquire, Sadler to Queene Elizabeth and King Iames. Who was a
worthy benefactor to the Parish, and to the Free-Schoole there: who departed this life in the yeere of
our Lord, 1625.
There is a Monument for William Emerson, who departed this life the 27. of Iune, An. Dom. 1575. in the yeere of his age 92.
Arvum hoc Sepulchrale.
Exuviarum opt. matris Iocosae dominae Clerke. Sui ipsius lectissimaeque uxoris consitioni destinatum, Gulielmus Augustinus Armiger vivus sacravit.
Conjux charissima primo. inseritur.
Quae post decimum partum (An MDCXXIII. Ian. XXI. Marito, ac liberis quinque superstitibus) Tricenaria valedicens: In restorescendi dic and spem; Hac terra tegitur.
Sequimur caeteri: Sati corruptibiles, Suscitandi incorruptibiles.
The Monument with this inscription standeth on the South side of the Quire.
Monumentum viri justi.
In memory of Iohn Symons, Citizen and White-Baker of London; who departed this life the 10. of August, in the yeere of our Lord 1625. and was a good Benefactor unto this Parish: who gave unto the poore the summe of eight pounds Per Annum for ever, to be distributed on the Feast day of St. Thomas before Christmas. And unto Saint Georges Parish in Southwarke the summe of ten pounds per Annum, for ever. And unto the Parish of Saint Mary Newington in Surrey, the summe of five pounds per Annum, for ever. These summes to come unto the said Parish, after the decease of his father Samuel Symons, who yet liveth, in the yeere 1631.
The Monument standeth in the South side of the Church, with this Epitaph:
His flesh interr'd here
In the South side of the Church by the Quire there standeth the
of William Austin, Esquire, very faire and beautifull; the invention thus:
Over the head of the Angell is a Sunne, and in it written Sol Iustitiae.
There standeth an Angell upon a Rocke, with a Sickle in the left hand, and the right hand erected towards heaven, with these words written on the Rocke: Petra erat Christus; and under the Rocke is a field of ripe wheate, and in it written: Si non moriatur, non reviviscit. And under that these words: Nos sevit, fovit, lavit, cogit, renovabit.
Vpon the right hand of this Angell are written these words: Vos estis Dei. And on the left this: Agricultura.
On each side of this Angell sitteth two other Angels, leaning on their armes; the one with a Forke, and under written Messores. The other with a Rack, and under written: Congregabunt.
Vnder all this is the forme of a winnowing Fanne, and words written in it.
The Lady Clarke, mother to Master William Austin, gave a very faire Communion Table railed about, where 60. may kneele to receive the Sacrament, with a faire Carpet for it, and the railes hung about with the same embroidered.
Master William Austin gave a faire Silver Chalice, and a Dish for the Bread, to the value of almost forty pounds. And his wife that now is, who was the Relict of Iohn Bingham, Esquire, gave two very faire Silver Flagons of the like value.
Ex Registro Curiae Praerogativae Cant. extracto.
Master Sampsons Will.
Item, I give and bequeath these Annuities ensuing to be issuing out of certaine Tenements of mine, viz. twentie shillings yeerly for ever to the Master and Society of Peter house in Cambridge, towards the maintenance of the Library there: and twentie shillings yeerly for ever to the Church-wardens of Saint Olaves in Southwarke, for the use of the poore of the Parish. And ten shillings yeerly for ever to the Church-wardens of the Parish of St. Saviours, for the poore in the precinct of old Parish Garden,
|16. Septem 1619.|
Master (blank) Smith hath given unto the said Parish of S. Saviours the summe
of twentie eight pounds per Annum, for ever unto the poore of this Parish.
Master Randall Carter, Citizen and Tallow Chandler of London, hath given seven pounds per Annum, for ever unto a poore Scholar that shall bee elected out of the Free Schoole to either of the Universities; and this seven pounds he is to enjoy for sixe yeeres, and his time expired to another: and so forward.
Master Edward Hulit, Gentleman, hath given forty pounds per Annum, to the poore of the same Parish for ever, to bee received out of certaine Tenements, situate in the Borough of Southwarke.
Hugh Brooker, Esquire, hath given unto the Free Schoole the summe of five pounds per Annum, for ever. And likewise unto the poore of the same Parish five pounds per Annum, for ever: and lyeth buried in Saint Saviours Church in the North Ile by the Quire.
Thomas Marshall gave an hundred pounds for ever to the Parish, for to clothe sixe poore boyes every Christmasse, who dyed in the yeere 1625.
S. Mary Ouerie Close.
S. Margaret on the hill made a court of iustice.
[p.788 (error for 778) (continued)]
Now passing through Saint Mary Overies Close, (in possession of the Lord Mountacute) & Pepper Alley, into Long Southwarke, on the right hand thereof, the Market hill, where the Leather is sold, there stood the late named Parish Church of Saint Margaret, given to Saint Mary Overies by Henry the first, put downe and ioyned with the Parish Church of Saint Mary Magdalen, and united to the late dissolved Priorie Church of Saint Mary Overy.
Court of Admiralty.
Compter in Southwarke.
A part of this Parish Church of Saint Margaret is now a Court, wherein the Assises and Sessions bee kept, and the
Court of Admiralty is also there kept. One other part of the same Church is now a Prison, called the Compter
in Southwarke, &c.
Suffolk house a mint in Southwarke.
Farther up on that side, almost directly over against Saint Georges Church, was sometime a large and most
sumptuous house, builded by Charles Brandon, late Duke of Suffolke, in the reigne of Henry the eight, which
was called Suffolke house; but comming afterwards into the Kings hands, the same was called Southwarke Place,
and a Mint of Coynage was there kept for the King.
To this place came King Edward the sixt, in the second of his reigne, from Hampton Court, and dined in it. He at that time made Iohn Yorke, one of the Sheriffes of London, Knight, and then rode through the City to Westminster.
Queene Mary gave this house to Nicholas Heth, Archbishop of Yorke, and to his successors for ever, to bee their Inne or lodging for their repaire to London, in recompence of Yorke House, neere to Westminster, which King Henry her Father had taken from Cardinall Woolsey, and from the Sea of Yorke.
Archbishop Heth sold the same house to a Merchant, or to
[p.789 (error for 779)]
Marchants, that pulled it downe, sold the Leade, Stone, Iron, &c. and in place thereof builded many small Cottages of great rents, to the increasing of beggers in that Borough. The Archbishop bought Norwich House, or Suffolke Place, neere unto Charing-Crosse, because it was neere unto the Court, and left it to his succssors. Now on the South side, to returne backe again towards the Bridge. Over-against this Suffolke Place, is the Parish Church of Saint George, sometime pertaining to the Priory of Bermondsey, by the gift of Thomas Arderne, and Thomas his sonne, in the yeere 1122.
There lye buried in this Church William Kirton Esquire, and his wives, 1464.
|Parish Church of S. George.|
Loe, Master William Evans hee
A faire Monument in the South wall of the Chancell.
Hee was free of the right Worshipfull Companie of the Marchant-Taylers, and deceased the nine and twentieth
of Iuly 1590. in the two and thirtieth yeere of the most prospe-
[p.788 (error for 780)]
rous reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth. Aetatis 67.
A faire Grave Stone under the Communion Table.
Behold, Iames Sauage graciously
|White Lyon a Goale for Surrey.||
Then is the White Lion, a Gaole so called, for that the same was a common Hostery for the receit of Travellers
by that signe. This house was first used as a Gaole within this three score yeeres last, since the which
time, the Prisoners were once removed thence to an house in Newtowne, where they remained for a short time,
and were returned backe againe to the aforesaid White Lyon, there to remain, as the appointed Gaole for the
County of Surrey.
Next, is the Gaole or Prison of the Kings Bench, but of what antiquity the same is, I know not.
For I have read, that the Courts of the Kings Bench and Chancery, have oft
times been removed from London to other places, and so hath likewise the other Gaoles that serve those Courts, as in the yeere 1304. Edward the first commanded the Courts of the Kings Bench and the Exchequer, which had remained seven yeeres at Yorke, to be removed to their old places at London. And in the yeere 1387. the 11. of Richard the 2. Robert Trisilian chiefe Iustice, came to the City of Coventrie, and there sate by the space of a moneth, as Iustice of the Kings Benches, and caused to bee indited in that Court, about the number of two thousand persons of that Country, &c.
It seemeth therefore, that for that time, the Prison or Gaole of that Court was not far off.
Also, in the yeere 1392. the 16. of the same Richard, the Archbishop of Yorke being Lord
Chancelor, for good will that he bare to his City, caused the Kings Bench and Chancery to bee removed
from London to Yorke, but ere long they were returned to London.
Then is the Marshalsey another Gaole or Prison, so called, as pertaining to the Marshalles of England.
Of what continuance kept in Southwarke, I have not learned: but like it is, that the same hath been removeable,
at the pleasure of the Marshalls. For I finde, that in the yeere 1376. the fiftieth of Edward the
3. Henry Percie (being Marshall) kept his prisoners in the City of London, where having committed one Iohn
Prendargest, of Norwich, contrary to the liberties of the City of London, the Citizens, by perswasion of the
Lord Fitzwalter, their Standard-bearer, tooke Armour, and ranne with great rage to the Marshals Inne, brake
up the gates, brought out the prisoner, and convayed him away, minding to have burnt the stockes in the
middest of their City; but they first sought for Sir Henry Percy, to have punished him, as I have noted
in my Annales.
Marshalsey in Southwarke.
|More, about the Feast of Easter next following, Iohn Duke of Lancaster, having caused al the whole Navie of England to be gathered together at London: It chanced a certaine Esquire to kill one of the Mariners, which act the other Mariners taking in ill part, they brought their suite into the Kings Court of the Marshalsey, which then as chanced (saith|
|Saylers brake up thy [=the] Marshalsey.||
mine Author) was kept in Southwarke: but when they perceived that Court to be so favourable to the murderer, and further, that the Kings Warrant was also gotten for his pardon; they in great fury ran to the house, wherein the murderer was imprisoned, brake into it, and brought forth the Prisoner with his Gives on his legges, they thrust a knife to his heart, and sticked him, as if he had beene a Hogge: after this they tied a rope to his Gives, and drew him to the Gallowes, where when they had hanged him, as though they had done a great act, they caused the Trumpets to be sounded before them to their Ships, and there in great Triumph they spent the rest of the day.
Rebels of Kent brake up the Marshalsey.
Also the Rebels of Kent, in the yeere 1381. brake downe the houses of the Marsalsey, and Kings Bench
in Southwarke, tooke from thence the Prisoners, brake downe the house of Sir Iohn Immorth, then Marshall of
the Marshalsey, and Kings Bench, &c. After this, in the yeere 1387. the eleventh of Richard
the second, the morrow after Bartholomew day, the King kept a great Councell in the Castle of Nottingham,
and the Marshalsey of the King was then kept at Lughborow by the space of sixe dayes or more. In the
yeere 1443. Sir Walter Many, was Marshall of the Marshalsey, the two and twentieth of Henry the sixt.
William Brandon, Esquire, was Marshall in the eighth of Edward the fourth. In the yeere 1504. the
Prisoners of the Marshalsey then in Southwarke brake out, and many of them being taken were executed, especially
such as had beene committed for Felony or Treason.
|The Tabard in Southwarke.||
From thence towards London bridge, on the same side, be many faire Innes: for receit of travellers, by
these signes, the Spurre, Christopher, Bull, Queens head, Tabard, George, Hart, Kings head, &c.
Amongst the which, the most ancient is the Tabard, so called of the signe, which as we now terme it, is of
a Iacket or sleevelesse coate, whole before, open on both sides, with a square coller, winged at the shoulders:
a stately garment, of old time commonly worne of Noblemen and others, both at home and abroad in the warres,
(to wit, in the Warres) their Armes embroidered, or otherwise depict upon them, that every man by his Coat of Armes might bee knowne from others: But now these Tabards are onely worne by the Heralds, and be called their Coates of Armes in Service. For the Inne of the Tabard, Geffrey Chaucer, Esquire, the most famous Poet of England, in commendation thereof, writeth thus:
It befell in that season, on a day,
Within this Inne was also the Lodging of the Abbot of Hide, (by the Citie of Winchester) a faire House
for him and his Traine, when he came to the Citie to Parliament, &c.
||The Abbot of Hide his Lodging.|
And then Theeves lane, by Saint Thomas Hospitall. The Hospitall of Saint Thomas first founded by
Richard, Prior of Bermondsey, in the Selerers ground, against the wall of the Monasterie, in the yeere 1213.
He named it the Almerie, or House of Almes, for Converts and poore Children; for the which ground, the Prior
ordained, that the Almoner should pay ten shillings foure pence yeerly to the Selerer, at Michaelmas.
||Hospitall of S. Thomas.|
But Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, in the yeere 1215. founded the same againe more fully
for Canons Regular, in place of the first Hospitall: He increased the Rent thereof to three hundred forty
foure pound by the yeere. Thus was this Hospitall holden of the Prior and Abbot of Bermondsey,
till the yeere 1428. at which time a composition was||
Liber S. Marie Overy.
S. Thomas Hospitall the second time founded.
made between Thomas Thetford, Abbot of Bermondsey, and Nicholas Buckland, Master of the said Hospitall of Saint Thomas, for all the Lands and Tenements, which were holden of the said Abbot and Covent in Southwarke, or elsewhere, for the old Rent to bee payd unto the said Abbot.
There be the Monuments in this Hospitall Church, of Sir Robert Chamber, Knight, William Fines, Lord Say,
Richard Chaucer, Iohn Gloucester, Adam Atwood, Iohn Ward, Michael Cambridge, William West, Iohn Golding,
Esquires. Iohn Benham, George Kirkes, Thomas Knighton, Thomas Baker, Gentleman. Robert,
Sonne to Sir Thomas Fleming, Agnes, wife to Sir Walter Dennis, Knight; Daughter and one of the heires of
Sir Robert Danvar, Iohn Evarey, Gentlemen, &c.
This Hospitall was by the Visitors, in the yeere 1538. valued at 266.li. 17.s. 6.d. and was surrendred to Henry the 8. in the 30. of his raigne.
The 3. foundation of S. Thomas Hospitall by the Citizens of London.
Gift of Ed. the sixt to the Hospitall of Saint Thomas in Southwarke.
In the yeere 1552. the Citizens of London, having purchased the voyd suppressed Hospitall of Saint
Thomas in Southwarke, in the Moneth of Iuly, began the reparations thereof, for poore, impotent, lame, and
diseased people, so that in the Moneth of November next following, the sicke and poore people were taken
in. And in the yeere 1553. on the 10. of Aprill, King Edward the sixt in the seventh of his
raigne, gave to the Maior, Comminaltie, and Citizens of London, to be a workehouse for the poore and idle
persons of the City, his house of Bridewell, and seven hundred Marks Lands of the Savoy Rents, which Hospitall
he had suppressed, with all the beds, bedding, and other furniture belonging to the same, towards the
maintenance of the said workehouse of Bridewell, and of this Hospitall of Saint Thomas in Southwarke.
This gift, the King confirmed by his Charter, dated the 26. of June next following, and willed it to be
called the Kings Hospitall in Southwarke.
The Church of this Hospitall, which of old time served for the Tenements neere adioyning and pertayning to the said Hospitall, remaineth as a Parish Church.
But now to come to Saint Olaves streete: on the banke of the river of Thames is the Parish Church of Saint Olave, a faire and meetely large Church, but a far larger Parish, especially of Aliens or strangers, and poore people; in which Church, there lyeth intombed Sir Iohn Burcettur, Knight, 1466.
S. Thomas Parish Church.
S. Olaves streete and Parish Church.
Here th'earthly part of William Benson lyes,He departed in the 56. yeere of his age. An. Dom. 1603.
A small monument in the North wall of the Chancell.
A grauen Plate in the East end of the Quire.
|A plated Stone by the Communion Table.||
Hic jacet corpus Ioannis Thomas, nuper Civis and Groceri Civitatis London. Qui obijt die Mercurij, vid. 23. Augusti, Anno Domini 1564. Hic tres uxores habuit, vid. Christianam, Matildam, & Ioannem. Ex Christiana suscepit hos liberos, Rogerum, Ioannem, seu Willielmum, Ioannem inter Richardum, Lambertum, Henricum, Beatricem, & Petrum. Ex Matilda, Aliciam, Agnetem, & Susannam. Ex Ioanna, Thomam, Martham, Margaretam, Annam, Richardum, & Saram.
|Another like Stone by it.||
Hic iacet corpus Richardi Philip, Civis & Groceri London. Qui obijt 10. die Mensis Aprilis,
Anno Domini 1412. & Isabella uxor ejus. Qui obijt, &c. Quorum, &c.
|The like Stone on the other side of the Table.||
Here resteth, in the mercie of God, the bodie of Iohn Eston, Esquire, late Iustice of the Peace, and of
Southwarke Steward, leaving behind him Margaret his wife. Which Iohn died the eight day of May,
Anno Domini 1565.
How rich be they certaine,
|An ancient Marble Tombe in the Chancell.||
Hic iacent Robertus Fayreford, quondam Serviens excellentiss. Principis Henrici Reg. Angliae Quarti,
ac nuper Coronator Curiae Marescalciae Hospitii Metuendissimorum Princip. Henrici Regis Angliae Quinti,
& Henrici Sexti. Qui obijt 21. die Augusti, Anno Domini, 1456. &c. Et
Agnet. vxor ... Quae obijt ...
|Prior of Lewis his Inne.||
Over-against this Parish Church, on the South side the street, was sometime one great House, builded of
Stone, with arched Gates, which pertained to the Prior of Lewis in Sussex, and was his Lodging when he
came to London: It is now a common Hosterie for Travellers, and hath to Signe, the Walnut-tree.
Then East from the said Parish Church of Saint Olave, is a Key. In the yeere 1330. by the licence of Simon Swanlond, Maior of London, it was builded by Isabell, widow to Hamond Goodcheape. And next thereunto, was then a great house of stone and timber, belonging to the Abbot of Saint Augustine, without the walles of Canturbury, which was an ancient piece of worke, and seemeth to be one of the first builded houses on that side the River, over-against the City: It was called the Abbots Inne of S. Augustine in Southwarke, and was sometime holden of the Earles of Warren and Surrey, as appeareth by a deede, made 1281. which I have read, and may bee Englished thus:
Abbot of Augustines Ine.
To all to whom this present writing shall come, Iohn, Earle Warren, sendeth greeting. Know ye, that we have altogether remised and quite claimed for us and our heires for ever, to Nicholas, Abbot of Saint Augustines of Canturbury, and the Covent of the same, and their successors, suite to our Court of Southwarke, which they owe unto us, for all that Messuage and houses thereon builded, and all their appurtenances, which they have of our fee in Southwarke, situate upon the Thames, betweene the Bridge-house, and Church of Saint Olave. And the said Messuage with the buildings thereon builded, and all their appurtenances to them and their successors, we have granted in perpetuall Almes to hold of us, and our heires for the same: saving the service due to any other persons, if any such be, then to us. And for this remit and grant, the said Abbot and Covent have given unto us five shillings of rent yeerely in Southwarke, and have received us and our heires in all Benefices, which shall be in their Church for ever.This sute of Court one William Graspeis was bound to doe to the said Earle, for the said Messuage: and heretofore to acquit in all things, the Church of Saint Augustine, against the said Earle.
This house of late time belonged to Sir Anthony Sentleger, then to Warham Sentleger, &c. And now
is called Sentleger house, but divided into sundry Tenements.
Next is the Bridgehouse, so called, as being a store-house, for stone, Timber, or whatsoever pertaining to the building or repairing of London bridge.
This house seemeth to have taken beginning, with the first founding of the Bridge; either of stone or timber: it is a large plot of ground on the banke of the river Thames, containing divers large buildings, for stowage of things necessary, towards reparation of the said Bridge.
Garners for the Corne in the Bridge-house.
Ovens in the Bridge-house.
A Brew-house builded in the Bridge-house.
There are also divers Garners, for laying up of Wheate, and other Grayners for service of the City, as
need requireth. Moreover, there bee certaine Ovens builded, in number ten: of which, sixe be very
large, the other foure being but halfe so bigge. These were purposely made to bake out the bread
corne of the said Grayners, to the best advantage, for reliefe of the pore Citizens, when neede should
require. Sir Iohn Throstone, Knight, sometime an Imbroderer, then a Goldsmith, one of the Sheriffes,
1516. gave (by his Testament) towards the making of these Ovens two hundred pounds, which thing was
performed by his Executors: Sir Iohn Munday Munday, Goldsmith, then being Maior. There was of late,
for the enlarging of the said Bridge-house, taken in an old Brew-house, called Goldings, which was given
to the City by George Monox, sometime Maior; and in place thereof, is now a faire Brew-house builded, for
service of the City with Beere.
Abbot of Battaile his Inne.
Next, was the Abbot of Battailes Inne, betwixt the Bridge-house and Battaile bridge, likewise on the banke
of the river of Thames; the walkes and gardens thereunto appertaining, on the other side of the way, before
the Gate of the said house, was called the Maze: there is now an Inne, called the Flower de luce, for that
the signe is three Flower de Luces. Much other buildings of small tenements are thereon builded,
replenished with strangers and other, for the most part poore people.
Then is Battaile bridge, so called of Battaile Abbey, for that it standeth on the ground, and over a
water-course (flowing out of Thames) pertaining to that Abbey, and
was therefore both builded and repayred by the Abbots of that house, as being hard adjoyning to the Abbots lodging.
Beyond this Bridge, is Bermondsey streete, turning South, in the South end whereof was sometime a Priory,
or Abbey, of Saint Saviour, called Bermonds eye in Southwarke, founded by Ailwin Childe, a Citizen of London,
in the yeere 1081.
Peter, Richard, Obstert, and Umbalde, Monkes de Charitate, came unto Bermondsey, in the yeere 1089. and
Peter was made first Prior there, by appointment of the Prior of the house, called Charity in France: by
which meanes, this Priory of Bermondsey (being a Cell to that in France) was accounted a Priory of Aliens.
In the yeere 1094. deceased Ailwin Childe, founder of this house. Then William Rufus gave to the Monkes, his Mannor of Bermondsey, with the appurtenances, and builded for them there a new great Church.
Robert Blewit, Bishop of Lincolne (King Williams Chancellor) gave them the Mannor of Charlton, with the appurtenances. Also Geffrey Martell, by the grant of Geffrey Magnavile, gave them the Land of Halingbury, and the tithe of Alferton, &c.
More in the yeere 1122. Thomas of Arderne, and Thomas his Son, gave to the Monkes of Bermonds Eye, the Church of Saint George in Southwarke.
In the yeere 1165. King Henry the second confirmed to them the Hide or territory of Southwarke, and
Laygham Waddam, with the land of Coleman, &c.
In the yeere one thousand, three hundred, seventie one, the Priories of Aliens (throughout England) being seized into the Kings hands, Richard Denton an Englishman, was made Prior of Bermondsey: to whome was committed the custody of the said Priory, by the letters patents of King Edward the third, saving to the King the advowsons of Churches.
|Hide of Southwarke to the Monkes of Bermondsey.|
|In the yeare 1380. the fourth of Richard the second, this Priory was made a Denison (or free English) for the fine|
Bermonds Eye made an Abbey.
of 200. Markes, paid to the Kings Hanaper in the Chancery. In the yeare 1399. I. Attelborough, Prior of Bermondsey, was made the first Abbot of that house, by Pope Boniface the ninth, at the suite of King Richard the second.
Abbot of Bermondsey held Plea against the King and prevailed.
In the yeere 1417. Thomas Thetford, Abbot of Bermondsey, held a Plea in Chauncery against the King, for
the Mannors of Preston, Bermondsey, and Stone, in the Countie of Summerset, in the which sute the Abbot prevailed,
and recovered against the King.
In the yeere 1539. this Abbey was valued to dispend by the yeere 474.li. 14.s. 4.d. ob. and was surrendred to Henry the eight, the 31. of his raigne: the Abbey Church was then pulled downe by Sir Thomas Pope, Knight, and in place thereof, a goodly house builded of stone and timber, since pertaining to the Earles of Sussex.
|Iohns Bauow. (?)||
There are buried in that Church, Loufstone Provost, Shrive or Domes-man of London, 1115. Sr. William
Bowes, Knight, and Dame Elizabeth his wife. Sir Thomas Pikeworth, Knight, Dame Anne Audley, George, sonne
to Iohn, Lord Audley, Iohn Winkefield, Esquire, Sir Nicholas Blonket, knight. Dame Bridget, wife to
William Trussell, Holgrave, Baron of the Exchequer, &c.
|Parish Church of Saint Mary Magdalen.||
Next unto this Abbey Church, standeth a proper Church of Saint Mary Magdalen, builded by the Priors of
Bermondsey, serving for resort of the inhabitants (tenants to the Prior or Abbots neere adioyning) there
to have their divine service: this Church remaineth and serveth as afore, and is called a Parish Church.
|The Loke a Lazar house in Kent streete.||
Then in Kentstreete is a Lazar house. for Leprous people, called the Loke [=Lock] in Southwarke:
the foundation whereof I finde not. Now having touched divers principall parts of this Borough, I am
to speak somewhat of government, & so to end.
|Muster of men in Southwark.||This Borough at a Subsidy to the King, yeeldeth about 1000. Marks, or 800.li. which is more than any one City in England paieth, except the City of London. And also the Muster of men in this Borough, doth likewise in number surpasse all other Cities, except London. And thus much for the Borough|
of Southwarke, one of the 26. Wards of London, which hath an Alderman, Deputies 3. and a Bayliffe. Common Councell none. Constables 16. Scavingers 6. Wardmote Inquest 20. And is taxed to the Fifteene, at 17. pounds, 17. shillings, 8. pence.
Vpon this spacious and specious Church (for well it deserves those Epithites) we look backward twentie yeeres or thereupon, at which time it was in many parts of it repaired, and within thorowout richly and very worthily beautified.
About two or three yeeres after, that Gallery that is over that part of the Church that is called Saint PETERS Chappell, and that that is over against it, as also that Gallery that crosses the middle Ile, over the entrance into the Chancell (much gracing the Church, and supplying a
great necessity) were worthily contrived and erected.
In the yeeres of our Lord God, 1621. and 1622. it was againe in many parts of it repaired; all the North side of it (at once) strengthened and beautified, with a substantiall and very artificiall Rough-cast, the other side Plaistered and Whited.
Among many rich and beautifull things that have beene added to this Church at divers times, and to severall parts and places, some of a generall cost, and some of particular bounties (for some reserved causes omitted) we here only remember that extraordinary faire and curious Table of the Commandements, and the Screene at the West doore, set up in the yeere of our Lord God, 1618.
But passing all these, somewhat now of that part of this Church above the Chancell, that in former times was called, Our Ladies Chappell.
It is now called, The new Chappell; and indeed, though very old, it now may be cal'd a new one,
because newly redeemed from such use and imployment, as in respect of that it was built to, Divine
and Religious duties, may very well be branded, with the stile of wretched, base, and unworthy, for
that that before this abuse, was (and is now) a faire and beautifull Chappell, by those that were then
the Corporation (which is a body consisting of 30. Vestry men, sixe of those thirty, Churchwardens)
was leased and let out, and this House of God made a Bake-house.
Two very faire doores, that from the two side Iles of the Chancell of this Church, and two that thorow the head of the Chancell (as at this day they doe againe) went into it, were lath't, daub'd, and dam d [sic] up: the faire Pillars were ordinary posts, against which they piled Billets and Bavens; in this place they had their Ovens, in that a Bolting-place, in that their Kneading-trough, in another (I have heard) a Hogs-trough; for the words that were given mee were these, This place have I knowne a Hog-stie, in another a Store-house, to store up their hoorded Meale: and in all of it, something of this sordid kind & condition.
It was first let by the Corporation afore named, to one
[blank] Wyat, after him to one
[blank] Peacocke, after him to one
[blank] Cleybrooke, and last to one
[blank] Wilson; all Bakers, and this Chappell still imployed in the way of their Trade, a Bake-house,
though some part of this Bake-house was sometime turned into a Starch-house.
The time of the continuance of it in this kind, from the first letting of it to Wyat, to the restoring of it againe to the Church, was threescore and some odde yeeres, in the yeere of our Lord God 1624. for in this yeere the ruines and blasted estate that the old Corporation sold it to, were by the Corporation of this time, repaired, renewed, well, and very worthily beautified: the charge of it for that yeere, with many things done to it since, arising to two hundred pounds.
This, as all the former Repaires, being the sole cost and charge of the Parishioners.
One Ile in this Chappell, was paved at the onely cost of one Master Iohn Hayman, Taylor, and Merchantaylor, in the yeere 1625.
A faire Monument on the North wall
Donec redeat Dominus Iesus Christus Subest quod Reliquum Iohannis Morton, in Artibus Magistri, qui
cum singulare cum pietatis, tum eruditionis exhibuerat specimen, Literatam juventutis Ambitionem Gemens,
unicique salvatoris Iesu Christi adventum anhelans, expiravit die 17. Septem. Anno salutis
1631. Annum aetatis agens 25. V.M. Graecis Musis lugentibus.
In the same Chappell and Ile, upon a Grave-stone is thus written.
Not twice ten yeeres of age,
God takes them soonest
Here lies buried the body of Iohn Buckland, Glover, 1625. Who deceased the 16. of August.
Vpon a faire stone close to this, under the Grocers Armes, is this Inscription.
In the same Ile, upon a faire Marble stone, with the Merchantaylors Armes at the head of it, is this Inscription.
This Stone was laid, and this Ile was paved, by Iohn Hayman, Taylor, and Merchantaylor, the 28. of October, 1625.
Next to this, upon a brasse plate, is this Inscription.
Here lyeth the body of Alice Dudson, the Wife of Thomas Dudson, who departed this life the 14. of October, 1626. who sometime did dwell in this Parish, but died in Saint Georges Parish.
All these, with that rich and cosly Monument of the right Reverend Father in God, Launcelot Bishop of Winchester, are in this Chappell.
Queene Elizabeths Monument.